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OMF surgery

Neuro Surgery

trauma surgery

orthopedic surgery

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

In the specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery 3D technology is used frequently in daily practice. The use of this technology assures safer, faster and more accurate surgical procedures. In addition, this technology is applied by the physician to discuss treatment options with the patients, in order to optimize the shared decision for the treatment.
The UMCG 3D lab was initiated by the department of OMFS and it is, therefore, also the department that has had the largest contribution to the development of the 3D technology and its safe and adequate clinical application in our institution.


The use of 3D virtual surgical planning and patient-specific guides are used for a variety of procedures within the specialty of neurosurgery. One of the major procedures that involves the use of 3D technology is the screw insertion during spinal fixation surgery, where 3D-printed drill guides help to achieve more accurate screw positioning. In addition, the correction of severe kyphoscoliosis (in collaboration with orthopedic surgery) and the reconstruction of skull defects, are procedures in which 3D technology helps to achieve safer and more accurate surgical outcomes.

Trauma surgery

Complex injuries are often dealt with in the field of trauma surgery. Using 3D imaging, these injuries can be visualized more accurately to increase the surgeons understanding of the injury. Furthermore, it is also possible to create a surgical planning and to 3D print patient-specific accessories to carry out the surgical plan.

Orthopedic Surgery

The orthopedic surgeons performs scoliosis surgery with the help of 3D virtual planning and patient-specific guides. In this field, 3D technology is also used for the design and fabrication of patient-specific antibiotic loaded cement spacers, and for Corrective Osteotomy of Extremity Malunions. In addition to surgical accessories, it is also possible to produce patient specific implants.

3D Design

For many interventions within various disciplines, having a 3D virtual planning is not sufficient to achieve the desired result and physical medical devices are required. The 3D lab applies techniques, software and knowledge to develop patient-specific devices in addition to a virtual planning, varying from drilling and sawing templates to patient-specific implants and prostheses.

Meet the team

Max Witjes
Joep Kraeima
Bram Merema
Peter Pijpker
TECHNICAL PHYSICIAN / 3D-EXPERT neurosurgery and orthopedics
Haye Glas
Anne Meesters
Nick Assink
Hylke van der Wel
Miriam Oldhoff
Quality Assurance Officer
Peter van Ooijen
Ricardo Rivas Loya
Bingjiang Qiu
Rutger Schepers

recent publications

  1. Glas, HH, Kraeima, J, Tribius, S, Leusink, FKJ, Rendenbach, C, Heiland, M, Stromberger, C, Rashad, A, Fuller, CD, Mohamed, ASR, Lai, SY, Witjes, MJH. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Isodose Radiation Volumes in Cases of Severe Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis for the Prediction of Recurrence after Segmental Resection.. J Pers Med. 2022;12 (5):. PubMed PMID:35629256 .
  2. Vosselman, N, Glas, HH, Merema, BJ, Kraeima, J, Reintsema, H, Raghoebar, GM, Witjes, MJH, de Visscher, SAHJ. Three-Dimensional Guided Zygomatic Implant Placement after Maxillectomy.. J Pers Med. 2022;12 (4):. PubMed PMID:35455704 PubMed Central PMC9027393.
  3. van Raaij, T, van der Wel, H, Beldman, M, de Vries, A, Kraeima, J. Two-Step 3D-Guided Supramalleolar Osteotomy to Treat Varus Ankle osteoarthritis[Formula: see text].. Foot Ankle Int. 2022; :10711007221082643. PubMed PMID:35382582 .
  4. Rozema, R, Kruitbosch, HT, van Minnen, B, Dorgelo, B, Kraeima, J, van Ooijen, PMA. Structural similarity analysis of midfacial fractures-a feasibility study.. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2022;12 (2):1571-1578. PubMed PMID:35111649 PubMed Central PMC8739105.
  5. Meesters, AML, Trouwborst, NM, de Vries, JPM, Kraeima, J, Witjes, MJH, Doornberg, JN, Reininga, IHF, IJpma, FFA, Ten Duis, K. Does 3D-Assisted Acetabular Fracture Surgery Improve Surgical Outcome and Physical Functioning?-A Systematic Review.. J Pers Med. 2021;11 (10):. PubMed PMID:34683107 PubMed Central PMC8541524.
  6. Gerbers, JG, Pijpker, PAJ, Brouwer, RW, van der Veen, HC. Anterolateral proximal tibial opening wedge osteotomy for biplanar correction in genu valgum recurvatum using patient specific instrumentation (PSI). A technical note.. Knee. 2021;33 :58-64. PubMed PMID:34560354 .
  7. Meesters, AML, Ten Duis, K, Kraeima, J, Banierink, H, Stirler, VMA, Wouters, PCR, de Vries, JPPM, Witjes, MJH, IJpma, FFA. The accuracy of gap and step-off measurements in acetabular fracture treatment.. Sci Rep. 2021;11 (1):18294. PubMed PMID:34521962 PubMed Central PMC8440593.
  8. Assink, N, Reininga, IHF, Ten Duis, K, Doornberg, JN, Hoekstra, H, Kraeima, J, Witjes, MJH, de Vries, JPM, IJpma, FFA. Does 3D-assisted surgery of tibial plateau fractures improve surgical and patient outcome? A systematic review of 1074 patients.. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2022;48 (3):1737-1749. PubMed PMID:34463771 .
  9. Meesters, AML, Assink, N, Ten Duis, K, Fennema, EM, Kraeima, J, Witjes, MJH, de Vries, JPM, Stirler, VMA, IJpma, FFA. Accuracy of Patient-Specific Drilling Guides in Acetabular Fracture Surgery: A Human Cadaver Study.. J Pers Med. 2021;11 (8):. PubMed PMID:34442407 PubMed Central PMC8400721.
  10. Qiu, B, van der Wel, H, Kraeima, J, Glas, HH, Guo, J, Borra, RJH, Witjes, MJH, van Ooijen, PMA. Automatic Segmentation of Mandible from Conventional Methods to Deep Learning-A Review.. J Pers Med. 2021;11 (7):. PubMed PMID:34357096 PubMed Central PMC8307673.
  11. Qiu, B, van der Wel, H, Kraeima, J, Glas, HH, Guo, J, Borra, RJH, Witjes, MJH, van Ooijen, PMA. Mandible Segmentation of Dental CBCT Scans Affected by Metal Artifacts Using Coarse-to-Fine Learning Model.. J Pers Med. 2021;11 (6):. PubMed PMID:34208429 PubMed Central PMC8232763.
  12. Pijpker, PAJ, Kuijlen, JMA, Kraeima, J, Groen, RJM, Faber, C. A Comparison of Drill Guiding and Screw Guiding 3D-Printing Techniques for Intra- and Extrapedicular Screw Insertion.. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2022;47 (10):E434-E441. PubMed PMID:34132234 .
  13. Vosselman, N, Glas, HH, de Visscher, SAHJ, Kraeima, J, Merema, BJ, Reintsema, H, Raghoebar, GM, Witjes, MJH. Immediate implant-retained prosthetic obturation after maxillectomy based on zygomatic implant placement by 3D-guided surgery: a cadaver study.. Int J Implant Dent. 2021;7 (1):54. PubMed PMID:34121148 PubMed Central PMC8200332.
  14. Qiu, B, Guo, J, Kraeima, J, Glas, HH, Zhang, W, Borra, RJH, Witjes, MJH, van Ooijen, PMA. Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks for 3D Mandible Segmentation in Computed Tomography.. J Pers Med. 2021;11 (6):. PubMed PMID:34072714 PubMed Central PMC8229770.
  15. Qiu, B, van der Wel, H, Kraeima, J, Hendrik Glas, H, Guo, J, Borra, RJH, Witjes, MJH, van Ooijen, PMA. Robust and Accurate Mandible Segmentation on Dental CBCT Scans Affected by Metal Artifacts Using a Prior Shape Model.. J Pers Med. 2021;11 (5):. PubMed PMID:34062762 PubMed Central PMC8147374.
  16. Pijpker, PAJ, Oosterhuis, TS, Witjes, MJH, Faber, C, van Ooijen, PMA, Kosinka, J, Kuijlen, JMA, Groen, RJM, Kraeima, J. A semi-automatic seed point-based method for separation of individual vertebrae in 3D surface meshes: a proof of principle study.. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2021;16 (9):1447-1457. PubMed PMID:34043144 PubMed Central PMC8354998.
  17. Rozema, R, Kruitbosch, HT, van Minnen, B, Dorgelo, B, Kraeima, J, van Ooijen, PMA. Iterative reconstruction and deep learning algorithms for enabling low-dose computed tomography in midfacial trauma.. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2021;132 (2):247-254. PubMed PMID:34034999 .
  18. Glas, HH, Kraeima, J, van Ooijen, PMA, Spijkervet, FKL, Yu, L, Witjes, MJH. Augmented Reality Visualization for Image-Guided Surgery: A Validation Study Using a Three-Dimensional Printed Phantom.. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021;79 (9):1943.e1-1943.e10. PubMed PMID:34033801 .
  19. Pijpker, PAJ, Kuijlen, JMA, Kaptein, BL, Pondaag, W. Three-Dimensional-Printed Drill Guides for Occipitothoracic Fusion in a Pediatric Patient With Occipitocervical Instability.. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2021;21 (1):27-33. PubMed PMID:33728473 PubMed Central PMC8203425.
  20. IJpma, FFA, Meesters, AML, Merema, BBJ, Ten Duis, K, de Vries, JPM, Banierink, H, Wendt, KW, Kraeima, J, Witjes, MJH. Feasibility of Imaging-Based 3-Dimensional Models to Design Patient-Specific Osteosynthesis Plates and Drilling Guides.. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4 (2):e2037519. PubMed PMID:33599774 PubMed Central PMC7893502.
  21. Hollander, MHJ, Kraeima, J, Meesters, AML, Delli, K, Vissink, A, Jansma, J, Schepers, RH. Reproducibility of 3D scanning in the periorbital region.. Sci Rep. 2021;11 (1):3671. PubMed PMID:33574454 PubMed Central PMC7878901.
  22. Pijpker, PAJ, Kraeima, J, Witjes, MJH, Oterdoom, DLM, Vergeer, RA, Coppes, MH, Groen, RJM, Kuijlen, JMA. Accuracy of Patient-Specific 3D-Printed Drill Guides for Pedicle and Lateral Mass Screw Insertion: An Analysis of 76 Cervical and Thoracic Screw Trajectories.. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021;46 (3):160-168. PubMed PMID:33093310 PubMed Central PMC7787187.
  23. Merema, BJ, Kraeima, J, Witjes, MJH, van Bakelen, NB, Spijkervet, FKL. Accuracy of fit analysis of the patient-specific Groningen temporomandibular joint prosthesis.. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021;50 (4):538-545. PubMed PMID:32943309 .
  24. Kraeima, J, Glas, HH, Merema, BBJ, Vissink, A, Spijkervet, FKL, Witjes, MJH. Three-dimensional virtual surgical planning in the oncologic treatment of the mandible.. Oral Dis. 2021;27 (1):14-20. PubMed PMID:32881177 .
  25. Meesters, AML, Ten Duis, K, Banierink, H, Stirler, VMA, Wouters, PCR, Kraeima, J, de Vries, JPM, Witjes, MJH, IJpma, FFA. What Are the Interobserver and Intraobserver Variability of Gap and Stepoff Measurements in Acetabular Fractures?. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2020;478 (12):2801-2808. PubMed PMID:32769535 PubMed Central PMC7899427.
  26. Onclin, P, Kraeima, J, Merema, BBJ, Meijer, HJA, Vissink, A, Raghoebar, GM. Utilising the nasal aperture for template stabilisation for guided surgery in the atrophic maxilla.. Int J Implant Dent. 2020;6 (1):23. PubMed PMID:32588142 PubMed Central PMC7316938.
  27. Merema, BBJ, Kraeima, J, Glas, HH, Spijkervet, FKL, Witjes, MJH. Patient-specific finite element models of the human mandible: Lack of consensus on current set-ups.. Oral Dis. 2021;27 (1):42-51. PubMed PMID:32372548 PubMed Central PMC7818111.
  28. Merema, BBJ, Kraeima, J, de Visscher, SAHJ, van Minnen, B, Spijkervet, FKL, Schepman, KP, Witjes, MJH. Novel finite element-based plate design for bridging mandibular defects: Reducing mechanical failure.. Oral Dis. 2020; :. PubMed PMID:32176821 PubMed Central PMC7507837.
  29. Glas, HH, Vosselman, N, de Visscher, SAHJ. The use of 3D virtual surgical planning and computer aided design in reconstruction of maxillary surgical defects.. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020;28 (2):122-128. PubMed PMID:32102008 .
  30. Tuin, AJ, Meulstee, JW, Loonen, TGJ, Kraeima, J, Spijkervet, FKL, Vissink, A, Jansma, J, Schepers, RH. Three-dimensional facial volume analysis using algorithm-based personalized aesthetic templates.. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020;49 (10):1379-1384. PubMed PMID:32081581 .
  31. van der Helm, HC, Kraeima, J, Xi, T, Jansma, J, Schepers, RH. The use of xenografts to prevent inferior border defects following bilateral sagittal split osteotomies: three-dimensional skeletal analysis using cone beam computed tomography.. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020;49 (8):1029-1035. PubMed PMID:31987591 .
  32. Rivas, R, Overbosch, J, Kwee, T, Kraeima, J, Dierckx, RAJO, Jutte, PC, van Ooijen, PM. Radiofrequency ablation of atypical cartilaginous tumors in long bones: a retrospective study.. Int J Hyperthermia. 2019;36 (1):1189-1195. PubMed PMID:31884842 .
  33. Assink, N, Kraeima, J, Slump, CH, Ten Duis, K, de Vries, JPPM, Meesters, AML, van Ooijen, P, Witjes, MJH, IJpma, FFA. Quantitative 3D measurements of tibial plateau fractures.. Sci Rep. 2019;9 (1):14395. PubMed PMID:31591466 PubMed Central PMC6779915.
  34. Kraeima, J, Schepers, RH, Spijkervet, FKL, Maal, TJJ, Baan, F, Witjes, MJH, Jansma, J. Splintless surgery using patient-specific osteosynthesis in Le Fort I osteotomies: a randomized controlled multi-centre trial.. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020;49 (4):454-460. PubMed PMID:31506186 .
  35. Qiu, B, Guo, J, Kraeima, J, Glas, HH, Borra, RJH, Witjes, MJH, van Ooijen, PMA. Automatic segmentation of the mandible from computed tomography scans for 3D virtual surgical planning using the convolutional neural network.. Phys Med Biol. 2019;64 (17):175020. PubMed PMID:31239411 .
  36. Meesters, AML, Kraeima, J, Banierink, H, Slump, CH, de Vries, JPPM, Ten Duis, K, Witjes, MJH, IJpma, FFA. Introduction of a three-dimensional computed tomography measurement method for acetabular fractures.. PLoS One. 2019;14 (6):e0218612. PubMed PMID:31216346 PubMed Central PMC6583999.
  37. Pijpker, PAJ, Wagemakers, M, Kraeima, J, Vergeer, RA, Kuijlen, JMA, Groen, RJM. Three-Dimensional Printed Polymethylmethacrylate Casting Molds for Posterior Fossa Reconstruction in the Surgical Treatment of Chiari I Malformation: Technical Note and Illustrative Cases.. World Neurosurg. 2019;129 :148-156. PubMed PMID:31150856 .
  38. Vosselman, N, Merema, BJ, Raghoebar, GM, Vissink, A. Differences in approach for sub-periosteal zygoma implant designs.. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019;48 (12):1605-1606. PubMed PMID:30926300 .
  39. Geertzen, JHB, van der Schans, SM, Jutte, PC, Kraeima, J, Otten, E, Dekker, R. Myodesis or myoplasty in trans-femoral amputations. What is the best option? An explorative study.. Med Hypotheses. 2019;124 :7-12. PubMed PMID:30798921 .
  40. Pijpker, PAJ, Kuijlen, JMA, Kraeima, J, Faber, C. Three-Dimensional Planning and Use of Individualized Osteotomy-Guiding Templates for Surgical Correction of Kyphoscoliosis: A Technical Case Report.. World Neurosurg. 2018;119 :113-117. PubMed PMID:30077023 .
  41. Vosselman, N, Merema, BJ, Schepman, KP, Raghoebar, GM. Patient-specific sub-periosteal zygoma implant for prosthetic rehabilitation of large maxillary defects after oncological resection.. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019;48 (1):115-117. PubMed PMID:30041913 .
  42. Kraeima, J, Dorgelo, B, Gulbitti, HA, Steenbakkers, RJHM, Schepman, KP, Roodenburg, JLN, Spijkervet, FKL, Schepers, RH, Witjes, MJH. Multi-modality 3D mandibular resection planning in head and neck cancer using CT and MRI data fusion: A clinical series.. Oral Oncol. 2018;81 :22-28. PubMed PMID:29884410 .
  43. Kraeima, J, Glas, HH, Witjes, MJH, Schepman, KP. Patient-specific pre-contouring of osteosynthesis plates for mandibular reconstruction: Using a three-dimensional key printed solution.. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018;46 (6):1037-1040. PubMed PMID:29716816 .
  44. Hoving, AM, Kraeima, J, Schepers, RH, Dijkstra, H, Potze, JH, Dorgelo, B, Witjes, MJH. Optimisation of three-dimensional lower jaw resection margin planning using a novel Black Bone magnetic resonance imaging protocol.. PLoS One. 2018;13 (4):e0196059. PubMed PMID:29677217 PubMed Central PMC5909900.
  45. Pijpker, PAJ, Kraeima, J, Witjes, MJH, Oterdoom, DLM, Coppes, MH, Groen, RJM, Kuijlen, JMA. Accuracy Assessment of Pedicle and Lateral Mass Screw Insertion Assisted by Customized 3D-Printed Drill Guides: A Human Cadaver Study.. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019;16 (1):94-102. PubMed PMID:29660055 .
  46. Kraeima, J, Merema, BJ, Witjes, MJH, Spijkervet, FKL. Development of a patient-specific temporomandibular joint prosthesis according to the Groningen principle through a cadaver test series.. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018;46 (5):779-784. PubMed PMID:29627367 .
  47. Witjes, MJH, Schepers, RH, Kraeima, J. Impact of 3D virtual planning on reconstruction of mandibular and maxillary surgical defects in head and neck oncology.. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;26 (2):108-114. PubMed PMID:29470184 .
  48. de Kleijn, BJ, Kraeima, J, Wachters, JE, van der Laan, BFAM, Wedman, J, Witjes, MJH, Halmos, GB. Virtual 3D planning of tracheostomy placement and clinical applicability of 3D cannula design: a three-step study.. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;275 (2):451-457. PubMed PMID:29177627 .
  49. Merema, BJ, Kraeima, J, Ten Duis, K, Wendt, KW, Warta, R, Vos, E, Schepers, RH, Witjes, MJH, IJpma, FFA. The design, production and clinical application of 3D patient-specific implants with drilling guides for acetabular surgery.. Injury. 2017;48 (11):2540-2547. PubMed PMID:28899562 .
  50. Kraeima, J, Steenbakkers, RJHM, Spijkervet, FKL, Roodenburg, JLN, Witjes, MJH. Secondary surgical management of osteoradionecrosis using three-dimensional isodose curve visualization: a report of three cases.. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;47 (2):214-219. PubMed PMID:28882499 .
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